Piper Diagram

Visual Display of Concentrations for Common Anions and Cations


See Also:

Piper Diagram Options

Graph Dates Dialog

Graph Locations Dialog

Graph Symbols Dialog

Graph Axis Dialog

Piper Diagram Titles

Valence and Atomic Weight



The Piper diagram is commonly used to display ground water quality for major cations and anions. The diagram consists of a triangle of cations in the bottom left, a triangle of anion concentrations in the bottom right, and a diamond of cations/anion pairs in the top center. For each sample, one point is plotted in all three regions. Typically, the Piper diagram is plotted in meq/l.


In ChemPoint, the Piper diagram has the following characteristics:


  • Only one diagram is produced at a time.
  • The parameters displayed on the diagram can not be changed.
  • The data for the graph can be limited by sample date or sampling location.
  • You can use field names to specify custom graph titles and axis labels.


Useful references for Piper diagrams include Kehew (2001), Fetter (1988), and Davis and DeWeist (1966).